Ayurvedic etio-pathlogy is possibility based rather than clinical study based, hence a well trained practitioner can check your tongue, pulse or symptoms and signs and understand the pathology with a good amount of precision. Ayurvedic doctors treat "new" diseases such as autism, haemochromatosis and chronic fatigue syndromes based on this training! The other side is Ayurveda cleverly addresses the "mind" side of the mind-body aspects. Its not just psychology, its the mind-body psychology.
What is a disease
Systemic diseases such as anaemia and arthritis are due to deficiency and inflammation respectively. Considering the numbers, inflammation dominates. Ayurveda and modern science have the same view on inflammation - its body's protective response, towards a pathogen (introduced or internally formed), that turns into a fight with heat, swelling and pain. Wherever the pathogen (toxin is) body develops a there-itis - in the skin dermatitis, joints arthritis, tendon tendonitis and so on.
What does Ayurveda do
Ayurveda attempts to 1) remove the cause behind the introduction or formation of pathogen 2) remove the pathogen, and 3) repair the body as quick as possible. Ayurveda has a well developed anti-etiology, anti-pathology, body repairing and upgrading philosophy.
What does allopathy / modern medicine do
Modern medicine tries to stop our body's inflammatory response! This leaves the pathogen in the system. So, the inflammation never goes away. This sounds primitive, because it is primitive. In emergencies this is useful. But, it is unwise to use an anti-inflammatory approach every time you develop an inflammation.
Why allopathy / modern medicine is fast
Modern medicine is sometimes looks and feel fast as its approach hides the symptoms quickly while the disease is still left hibernating at large. Have you seen long term colitis suppression leads to Colitic Arthritis? When antiinflammtories are used to suppress the colitis, pathogens move to the nearby joints resulting in inflammation there. Psoriatic arthritis and asthma turning into eczema are another examples. Modern approach occasionally gives you quick symptomatic relief.
How is Ayurveda different between other methods of natural therapy?
Ayurveda employs every aspect of alignment (exercise, posture, body therapies etc), nutrition, herbs, formulas, cleanses, cell repair, psychology (consoling, meditation, visualisation, affirmation) etc. in the right context. Some people need meditation, some others body therapies and some lots of rest and yet another group cleanses for seemingly the same disease. Ayurveda is NOT a toolkit with just a hammer. So, for an Ayurveda doctor the world doesn't look like a nail.
Many Ayurveda practitioners are not masters, they are jacks of all trades. So, they refer selected clients to chiros, herbalists, homoeopaths, naturopaths, body therapists, counsellors and so on for precision expert care. Hence, Ayurvedic practitioner has a stop for being holistic - while herbalism and other branches stay 100% natural.